Astronomical telescopes can detect stars hundreds of millions of light-years or more because the electromagnetic waves emitted by these stars have been transmitted to the earth over hundreds of millions of years and then be observed by astronomical telescopes. There are two main types of astronomical telescopes, one is an optical telescope and the other is a radio telescope.
The principle of astronomical telescope:
The astronomical telescope detects electromagnetic waves. Optical astronomical telescopes detect visible light, that is, the so-called star itself is seen; radio astronomical telescopes detect radio waves, which are a type of radio wave, and radio waves are electromagnetic waves with a lower frequency than visible light. However, the specific detection methods of the two are also different.
The light observed by the optical telescope is emitted by stars, but many of these stars have long ceased to exist. What we see is the light emitted billions of years ago. Optical astronomical telescopes are divided into reflective, reflective and catadioptric astronomical telescopes. As the name suggests, the principle of a refracting telescope is to use the imaging principle of a convex lens to see the real image; the principle of a reflecting telescope is to use the reflection of a flat mirror to see a virtual image; the principle of a reflex telescope is to combine the two to see Is also a virtual image.
Radio telescope, which belongs to the astronomical telescope used by professional observatory for observation. It receives radio waves emitted by stars, and then records key data, including radio intensity, frequency spectrum, polarization, etc. of celestial bodies. At the same time, it is equipped with professional information processing. The system processes the collected information. Under such conditions, stars that cannot be observed by ordinary optical telescopes can be observed, such as pulsars, quasars, interstellar organic molecules, and so on.
The structure of the astronomical telescope:
One: the main tube
The main tube of the astronomical telescope is the protagonist of observing the stars. With different eyepieces, we can see the stars as much as we want.
Astronomical telescopes usually observe stars with a magnification of several tens of times or more. When looking for stars, if you use tens of times to find the stars, because the field of view is small, it is not that simple to find the stars with the main lens tube. The function of the field of view is to find out the position of the star to be observed first, so that the star can be directly observed in the main lens barrel at medium and low magnification.
If an astronomical telescope lacks eyepieces, there is no way to see the stars. The function of the eyepiece is to magnify. Usually a telescope must be equipped with low, medium and high magnification spectacle eyepieces.
Four: Equatorial mount
The equatorial mount is a device that can track stars and observe them for a long time. The equatorial mount is divided into the right ascension axis and the declination axis, and the most important one is the right ascension axis. In use, you must first align the right ascension axis with the north pole of the celestial sphere. When the star is found, turn on the tracking motor and lock the clutch to track the star. In order to facilitate the ascension axis to align with the North Star, a small telescope is installed in the center of the ascension axis, called a polar axis telescope. On the right ascension and declination axes, there are large and small fine adjustments, and their function is to find the auxiliary stars.
Five: tracking motor
Right ascension tracking motor can drive the right ascension axis to rotate in the opposite direction at the same angular velocity as the rotation of the earth, track the stars, and keep the stars in view for a long time. In addition, you can also use a faster speed to find the stars you want to observe, and increase or decrease the Shanghai weather to do astrophotography.
The function of the declination tracking motor is to make adjustments and corrections when the star under observation deviates from the center of the field of view, searching for stars and astrophotography. Generally, the equatorial mount should have a right ascension motor. If it takes a long time to take astronomical images, both right ascension and declination motors are required.
Six: Tripod table and tripod
The tripod stand is used to connect the equatorial mount and the mirror tube to connect the tripod. The tripod is used to carry the astronomical telescope and the equatorial mount, and is used as a pillar. The small equatorial ice age 3 instrument usually uses a tripod, and the heavier equatorial instrument has a single foot.
Seven: Equatorial mount control box and power supply
For the equatorial mount to work, it must use a power source to drive the tracking motor. Generally, the portable Chimeiyu singing instrument requires the purchase of dry batteries or accumulators, which are suitable for use in the wild and mountainous areas. The control box of the equatorial mount is designed with many functions, so that it can observe the stars, search for the stars, and engage in the needs of astrophotography.
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